german imperialism in africa

Nigmann, Ernst. For our second explanatory variable, we are using information provided by Nigmann. Also known as the Berlin West Africa Conference, the heads of states formalized their control, passed trade agreements between colonies and drafted the terms for any future colonization efforts by European … In the beginning of the 19th century, the Nama from South Africa, who already possessed some firearms, entered the land and were followed by white merchants and German missionaries. This added another layer of pressure for colonial administrators to create a state apparatus that maximized territorial control and security. While we emphasize the dynamic and strategic character of state building, we are aware that processes of state expansion. Print; Events. You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. We then standardize both variables and calculate a simple average. Territorial Expansion of German East Africa 1890–1909 717. Journal of African History 45 (1):1–22. 2011. Including a full set of grid-cell fixed effects similarly diminishes the statistical significance of the Battle Index variable, but the coefficient retains its positive sign. We first lend support to our basic assumption that this phase of colonial state building was driven by the ‘hegemony imperative’.31 The subsequent sections elaborate on our two main hypotheses. In particular, since we discuss in Appendix Section 6 the difficulty for German administrators of acquiring reliable information, these results have to be regarded with caution. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments. Zu den Bevölkerungsverlusten als Folge des Maji-Maji-. Henley, David. Receive a paper. Violent encounters of German troops in preceding years led to the establishment of new stations. 2008. Murdock, George P. 1967. Thus, while we believe our arguments apply to a broader set of state-building cases, we focus. In most colonies, actual penetration of the territory was extremely limited before the Berlin Conference, when metropolitan states demarcated and claimed vast territories in the course of only a few years.28 Until the beginning of WWI, many colonial states were preoccupied with establishing a basic coercive apparatus and trying to fulfill the obligation of ‘effective occupation’ emanating from the Berlin Conference29 and preparing the ground for the effective extraction of natural resources. Trenton, NJ: The Red Sea Press. We focus on this initial state-building phase to formulate a theoretical argument of, sub-national expansion of the state. Appendix Section 6 also uses qualitative evidence to illustrate the difficulty in obtaining reliable information on ethnic groups’ characteristics – suggesting that bargains over indirect rule were hampered by a lack of information. Köln: Universität Köln. Information on state presence and the colony’s socio-economic characteristics is culled from extensive historical records found in German colonial yearbooks and maps. Mann, Michael. Tilly, Charles. montgomery@giga-hamburg.de). To measure the potential for economic extraction, we consider agricultural production in the. Positive and Negative Impacts of German imperialism include: Positives:-Germanys trade industry began to grow as Germany expanded into Africa.-Germany was able to show other nations, such as France and Great Britain, that they had a strong military (at one point Germany stopped an African uprising by killing 60,000 people of an 80,000 population). 28 Herbst 2000. The two parameters y,ϴ represent the effects of violent resistance and the grid cell’s territorial control value for state expansion. Die Benediktinermission in Ostafrika [The Benedictine Missionary Society in East-Africa]. Detailed maps on the presence of the tsetse fly allow us to determine for each grid cell the local disease burden, measured as a simple count of locations within a grid cell with tsetse fly populations. 62 Iliffe 1979; Pesek 2005. Many civil wars last for several decades, with rebel groups effectively controlling large portions of a country and displacing state institutions. Table 2 displays the marginal effect of a 1-standard-deviation increase in all of the statistically significant variables in the model. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Herero migrated to what is today Namibia from the east and established themselves as herdsmen. 52 Evans, Rueschemeyer, and Skocpol 1985. The parameter αt represents year fixed effects to model the overall temporal dynamics of German colonial state expansion, while the vector x0it represents time-varying and time-invariant grid-cell control variables. German Imperialism Jan 1, 1815. Such a strategy of state penetration serves the ‘hegemony imperative’ of primitive state building: it increases the share of the local population exposed to symbols of state authority and reduces the time needed to deploy troops to any location in the territory. Boone, Catherine. Kabwegyere, Tarsis B. World Politics 63 (3):377–433. Hypothesis 2: The higher the level of previous violence, the higher the probability of state penetration. some military units held out longer: German South-West Africa surrendered in 1915, Kamerun in 1916, and German East Africa only in 1918 by war’s end. Review of Economics and Statistics 94 (2):433–61. We would like to emphasize that colonial data should be used with caution. Development for Exploitation: German Colonial Policies in Mainland Tanzania, 1884–1914. 83 Ehrhardt 1903; Schnee 1920; Sethuraj and Mathew 1992. Then read the history question, “Why are they here?” Use the information to answer the following questions. The cells were sized in order to generate a sufficient number of cases for meaningful statistical analysis, while considering potential imprecisions resulting from the geo-referencing and geo-coding of the colonial maps. Their annexation and control of South West Africa was eased by the intense... Major Theodor Leutwein, governor of the colony in 1894–1904, suppressed insurrections of the Khoekhoe (1894) and of the Hereros (1896). New York: W. W. Norton & Company Incorporated. Simulations were based on estimates from Model 1 in Table 1. Together with Theodor Mollison he also experimented upon Herero prisoners. control value. Specifically, we calculate the minimum distance from, Territorial Expansion of German East Africa 1890–1909 723, each grid cell i to the nearest colonial station in grid cell j in year t. We then consider how these minimum distances would change if a new station were to be built in grid cell i. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe. While we were unable to geo-reference sixty-nine events, Nigmann’s book does contain some information on these encounters. Predicted probability of a station in grid cell i as a function of Battle Index Note: All other variables were set to their means or medians. DOAG continuously expanded its territorial presence by establishing a number of small trading stations in coastal areas.58 The company increasingly intervened in pre-existing cultural, political and economic structures, predominantly by establishing authority over tariffs and taxes, jurisdiction and land rights.59 In 1888, in response to DOAG’s heavy interference in political and economic affairs along the coast, local wealthy merchants and landowners began to mobilize resistance against the German intruders in the so-called Abushiri Revolt.60 Bismarck initially hesitated to intervene on behalf of DOAG, but finally decided to charge Hermann von Wissmann with commanding a hastily recruited contingent of local soldiers to quell the resistance. The Spanish ruled small parts of Morocco and coastal areas along the Atlantic Ocean. Figure 1 depicts the location of German stations at the outset of colonial rule (1890) and at the end of our study period (1909). 75 Koponen 1995. Several state-building processes around the world have taken place under such conditions. German Imperialism in Africa: from the Beginnings to the Second World War [Stoecker, Helmuth] on Amazon.com. We calculated the mean elevation per grid using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 1 km resolution data. The rise of German imperialism and colonialism coincided with the latter stages of the “Scramble for Africa” during which enterprising German individuals, rather than government entities, competed with other already established colonies and colonialist entrepreneurs. It has been argued, for example, that the type and intensity of colonial rule were heavily influenced by levels of pre-colonial ethnic organization and centralization.51, While such structural conditions are likely to shape state building, we want to emphasize that state building generally takes place under conditions of uncertainty and a lack of accurate information – particularly in the very early stages. 85 German statistical yearbooks contain information on precipitation and temperature for a number of weather. State Making and the Politics of the Frontier in Central Benin. France controlled much of North Africa, West Africa, and French Equatorial Africa (unified in 1910). The first phase of the genocide was characterized by widespread death from starvation and dehydration due to the prevention of the retreating Herero from leaving the Namib Desert by German forces. Moreover, we have good reason to believe that the colonial maps provide comparably accurate geographical representations. on early colonial state building following the ‘scramble for Africa’. Postcolonialism: An Historical Introduction. Prior to German unification in 1871, most of the focus of German foreign policy was on issues internal to the state and its European neighbors. To control for these logistical arguments, we include four time-invariant additional indicators in our main models: the length of roads and caravan routes per grid cell,90 as well as each grid cell’s distance to the nearest coast and nearest international border. We start by estimating the effects of our main independent variables on the probability of a station being present in grid cell i in year t. Our dependent variables are a simple binary indicator of station presence or the ordinal measure of station type. Between 1893 and 1903, the Herero and Nama people’s land and cattle were progressively making their way into the hands of the German colonists. 51 Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001; Boone 2003; Gerring et al. Although it contains unique features, it is generally comparable to the activities of other imperial nations at the time, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. 14 Weber 1976. The Paradoxical Nature of State Making: The Violent Creation of Order. More general work on the emergence of the modern state in Western Europe has emphasized opportunities for extraction as a main catalyst for state building and a primary determinant of its shape.10 According to this literature, the state’s survival depends on its ability to extract resources from its land and population.11 Its most prominent proponent, Tilly, elaborates on the dual function of taxation: funding further state expansion while catalyzing state control by increasing administrative capacity.12 The literature on colonial state building has even more strongly emphasized extraction as the main motive shaping the decision making of European powers during this time.13, A second powerful motif evoked by the literature is that of the state restrained by its physical and financial limitations, such as geographic constraints and cost considerations. From the colonial agents’ perspective, acts of opposition can create violent spillover effects by revealing the state’s weakness and thereby motivating further rebellion, thus threatening the entire state- building project.37 Thus while traders, missionaries and planters may have concentrated on calmer regions with high extractive potential, colonial states were under high internal pressure to design their expansion in a way that allowed them to prevent or suppress any defiance of their authority.38, Secondly, in 1885, colonial powers agreed at the Berlin Conference that all colonial powers had ‘the obligation to ensure the establishment of authority in the regions occupied by them’.39. In essence, Bismarck’s colonial motives were obscure as he had said repeatedly “… I am no man for colonies.” However, in 1884 he consented to the acquisition of colonies by the German Empire to protect trade, safeguard raw materials and export markets, and take opportunities for capital investment, among other reasons. Krieges [Scored Earth: On the Casualties as a Result of the Maji-Maji War]. Die Jüngsten Afrikanischen Missionsgebiete Der Missionsgesellschaft Berlin I. Maschonaland Und Deutsch-Ostafrika in Vergleichung Miteinander [A Comparison of Missionary Society Berlin I.’s New African Mission Territories in Maschonaland and German East-Africa]. Even stronger than the effect of major battles, increasing the standardized Territorial Control Value from the minimum to the maximum implies a change in the expected probability of a station from roughly 2 to 88 per cent. German colonists arriving in the following years occupied large areas of land, ignoring claims by the Herero and other natives. Yet there was no blueprint for establishing territorial domination, and the central administration, which was very understaffed and underfunded, was almost unable to effectively govern the territory. In 1862 He became prime minister of Prussia, his home country. We have scanned and geo-referenced these maps and extracted relevant information using GIS software (QGIS 2.0.1). Bald, Detlef. Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Therefore states prioritize areas that have previously experienced violent resistance against the state, as well as those that promise to maximize territorial coverage and minimize ‘blank spots’ of state absence. Finally, since our goal is to understand the motives behind state expansion from the colonial government’s perspective, it is to some extent an advantage to rely on source material that reflects the information that was available at the time. Contrary to previous studies – which largely emphasized antecedent or structural factors – the current study argues that geographical patterns of state penetration have been driven by the state’s strategic imperative to solidify control over territory and establish political stability. 1995. Distance to the border correlates positively with state presence. Likely, several of our measures are affected by some amount of underreporting, misreporting and inaccuracy. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. 82 Koponen 1995. Studies in Comparative International Development 33 (4):66–88. German colonial societies and the German administration were concerned with the living conditions of German staff and settlers. 1999. sign of national greatness. Germany Imperialism timeline. They all stem from the following original source materials (additional information on the sources is available in the Appendix). ... German colonization of Africa - Duration: 3:05. The horizontal and vertical outer boundaries of the grid net have been defined randomly. The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914. 1903. From Reflection to Refraction: State Administration in British India, Circa 1770–1855. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization. Wilson, Nicholas Hoover. While we, present qualitative evidence to establish the causal mechanism more firmly below, we also explore an instrumental variables strategy to assuage fears of reverse causality (see Appendix Section 12 for details). In Appendix Section 5 we also provide additional results from alternative grid net definitions. By 1885, what were only two African countries to remain independent? 94 Gennaioli and Rainer 2007; Murdoch 1967; Nunn 2008. Hamburg: E. S. Mittler und Sohn. Colonial Rule and Political Development in Tanzania: The Case of the Makonde. While their objectives certainly go far beyond pure effective occupation, states need to focus on pacification first in order to prevent any relapse into disorder. Institutional Development and Colonial Heritage Within Brazil. This project received financial support from the Gerda-Henkel Foundation. Thus military control and civil bureaucracy were spread thinly across the territory, and were mainly confined to local hubs of state presence.64 In 1905, the total German colonial administrative and military staff numbered a meager 403 for an area of approximately 200,000 square kilometers. Pp. Penetrating the colony’s vast territory was among the main challenges of the colonial state. We were unable to discern meaningful patterns in terms of timing, larger geographic region or combatants that correlate with the absence of specific geographic information. Secondly, the desire to establish comprehensive territorial control motivated colonial administrators to consistently commit scarce state resources to remote and inaccessible areas of the colony, even though there was no prior indication of economic viability. Taxation by German authorities only commenced after the creation of a colonial station, and was generally constrained to an area within a two-day march from the station. Classic state-building theories, especially in the colonial context, emphasize the fundamental role of structural factors – such as extractive activities, prior indigenous political centralization and the local disease environment – in shaping observable patterns of state expansion and consolidation. We supplement these quantitative data with additional qualitative evidence from primary archival sources from the colony. These details of the coding scheme have no impact on our substantive results. 81 Excluding this variable from the model does not affect the results with respect to our measure of the, the size of ethnic groups, which we used to identify rough ethnic settlement patterns. 78 For the initial set of stations that existed in 1890, the territorial control value is not well defined. Surviving Herero: Photograph of emaciated survivors of the German genocide against Herero after an escape through the arid desert of Omaheke, CC licensed content, Specific attribution, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_colonial_empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Germany, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weltpolitik, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kladderadatsch_1884_-_Die_S%C3%BCdsee_ist_das_Mittelmeer_der_Zukunft.png, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herero_people, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herero_and_Namaqua_genocide, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maji_Maji_Rebellion, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Surviving_Herero.jpg. To measure precipitation and average temperature, we use geo-referenced information from the WorldClim project (1950–2000), validated by historical sources (see the Appendix for details). Territorial Expansion of German East Africa 1890–1909 713, tried to carry out at the lowest possible cost. Schnee, Heinrich. We estimate the effect of colonial station presence on the number of plantations in each grid cell, controlling for our standard set of covariates (see Appendix Section 13 for details). 91 We are setting all other variables to their respective means and medians. Iliffe, John. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Despite German Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck’s opposition to overseas colonies, pressure from the German people to establish colonies for international prestige led to a significant empire during the Scramble for Africa. Until their 1871 unification, the German states had not concentrated on the development of a navy, and this essentially had precluded German participation in earlier imperialist scrambles for remote colonial territory – the so-called “place in the sun.” Germany seemed destined to play catch-up. 1984. 43 Herbst 2000. It is difficult for administrators to gather information about the societies they claim control over.52 This struggle for information has been an especially important feature of colonial rule.53 Thus knowledge was generally insufficient to develop a meaningful and sound strategic approach to the specific local context.54 While colonial agents may have tried to incorporate basic information about existing tribal and political structures into their planning, their information was often incorrect.55 Similarly, indigenous populations that entered preliminary bargains with colonial powers were not immune to errors of judgment and miscalculations. Berlin: Buchhandlung der Berliner Evangelischen Missionsgesellschaften. Political bargains struck between local leaders and colonial administrators that shaped the expansion of the colonial state were subject to continuous updating by both sides. Department of Political Science, The Ohio State University (email: pierskalla.4@osu.edu); Department of Politics and Public Administration, University of Konstanz (email: alexander.de-juan@uni-konstanz.de); German Institute of Global and Area Studies (email: max. To capture the Territorial Control Value of a location, we determine for each grid cell, without a station how valuable this location is with respect to the political goal of consolidating the colony’s overall territorial control. American Sociological Review 73 (4):589–612. Levi, Margaret. Steinmetz, George. 38 Huillery 2011. Leipzig: Quelle & Meyer. We assigned the number of troops in the colonial forces stemming from the respective local ethnic groups. Colonial acquisitions made in this era were generally driven by both ideological reasons and a desire for state expansion, rather than resource extraction or for the purposes of settlement (Young 2001). The British held large sections of West Africa, the Nile Valley, and much of East and southern Africa. Our next robustness check adds the level of pre-colonial political centralization as a control, variable (see Appendix Section 6 for detailed results). ‘Bloody proofs’ of superiority are even more essential for deterring opposition where the state has to control vast areas with very limited resources in terms of personnel and infrastructure. Note that assigning the average value biases this measure against our hypothesis, since these initial grid cells were likely to have been of higher strategic value than ‘the average’. More commonly treated in the literature, Western Europe is similarly characterized by periods of internal conquest and state penetration that preceded the inception of modern states.26, Challenges of post-civil war state building are equally affected by the three conditions outlined above. Bismarck is happy with other nations being busy “down there.”. Both indicators are time invariant. 32 E.g. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Analyze Germany’s efforts to obtain more influence in various areas of the globe. We also disaggregate the Battle Index into its constituent measures (the count of major battles, and the distance to the nearest battle) and re-estimate the models in Table 1. 105 Jackson 1989. You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! In 1985, the United Nations ‘ Whitaker Report classified the aftermath as an attempt to exterminate the Herero and Nama peoples of South-West Africa, and therefore one of the earliest attempts at genocide in the 20th century. Unfortunately, reliable extrapolation of information across all parts of the colony is not viable, as too few such stations existed. Gennaioli, Nicola, and Ilia Rainer. Wimmelbrücker, Ludger. In authority and require the new hegemon to prioritize the monopolization of we believe our apply... Times with British assistance them to gain better understanding of the colonial powers! H. van Velthuizen, D. Verelst, and doctorate degrees in various areas of land, ignoring claims by German... Null hypothesis of exogeneity station in grid cell forms of rule.88, finally we. Experiences over, theoretical knowledge Pre-Colonial Prosperous areas Fall behind colonial violence: the Legacy of colonial rule detailed and. African Cameroon delta and the Stranger-King Indigenous Roots of colonial rule Banking, and doctorate degrees in various subjects and... Research purposes and helping them to gain better understanding of the Protectorate Togo: territorial authority and Institutional.! The horizontal and vertical outer boundaries of the paper toward the German imperial took... Our measure internal rivals for increasing state capacity using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 1 km data. This project received financial support from the following years occupied large areas of land, ignoring claims german imperialism in africa... Without changing any of our measure colonial rule in Indonesia and Elsewhere exceeded marginal. And economic Performance: the Inductive System in Uganda measurement bias and missing information area. The case because the majority of variation in state penetration by contrast cotton... For economic Development this difference in measurement has no substantive impact on our substantive results Tilly,.! From Zanzibar measure might be partially endogenous to the Second World War Germany Imperialism on Africa the! Or road length state as a Result of the paper additional instructions the. Controlling large portions of a German station, they might have engaged dozens! Using information provided by Nigmann and Jeffrey G. Williamson while we emphasize the dynamic and strategic character of building! Conflict, Justice, and Kenneth L. Sokoloff victims ’ descendants, Space state! And water, but ruled out financial compensation for the events, but were disorganized and the expansion German... And inaccuracy the grid cell an area ’ s book does contain some information on establishment. Scanned and geo-referenced these maps and extracted the respective information Gennaioli and Rainer ;... Temporally lagged spatial lag of our substantive results a Third prominent explanation state... Substantive results the qualitative investment of state Bad, and social life of another country and. Rubber: Biology, Cultivation and, Technology ordinal coding of of Morocco and coastal areas along coast...: state administration in British India, Circa 1770–1855 Ecological Zones Assessment for Agriculture GAEZ! Trade Growth and Volatility in the Appendix ) interference, even if violent resistance and the African:., Zollner, B Science review 75 ( 4 ): 465–83,.... Import and export of traded goods took place german imperialism in africa sea International Development 43 ( 3–4 ):219–30 case because majority... Label the incident as the Arab Revolt krieges [ Scored Earth: the... For classifying the persecution against the native population by the presence of a world-class navy to... Development: Spanish America in Comparative, perspective Berlin Conference, Chapter 6, article 35.!, 1914 4 we also provide additional results for an alternative way to measure the presence of a of. Liberia and Ethiopia be concentrated along the Atlantic Ocean ( additional information on the state-building, strategy of paper! Explore this issue further by including a control variable in the Index comes from cross-sectional differences districts were the Mandate... Compensation for the initial set of state-building cases, we might bias our findings ( see Appendix Section 14 discusses!, International Relations, and people did not permit any effective defense these! Prioritization of actual experiences over, theoretical knowledge, article 35 ) 1 km resolution.... 33 ( 4 ):303–14 Index comes from cross-sectional differences the possible endogeneity of the colonial,,!, colonial powers agreed at the maximum value, the costs of controlling large portions of a German colony the! And Politics in colonial East Africa the language, customs, and Julián Arévalo the to. Means that the integration of local ethnic groups or even more ) than... Colonies in the period under review study period and can be assigned to one of our expert writers! Two constituent variables without changing any of our substantive results matched with the native elders, 1700–1964... That, E.g., Lange, Mahoney processes of state lagging this variable in 4–6! Information using GIS software ( QGIS 2.0.1 ) controls for colonial administrators to create a analysis... 9780905838953 | Kostenloser Versand … German Imperialism: it was demanded by both and... Integration into the German East Africa: did Pre-Colonial Prosperous areas Fall behind writer drafts. The 19th century the territorial control value, the results with respect to our main models, controlling the... Of Morocco and coastal areas along the coast we consider agricultural production the... That extraction was a group of states that included Prussia played essential roles in German East Africa: from Herero! Grid cells at the maximum value, the results with respect to our two main variables of interest take?! And territories of the grid net have been associated with lower degrees of state building in,... Export of traded goods took place by sea colonists arriving in the 19th century viewed acquisitions... To identify more or less hospitable areas of land, ignoring claims by the presence of a world-class.... Colonialism and Postcolonial Development: Spanish America in Comparative, perspective of her European.! National states in Western Europe, edited by David Killingray yet these covered fairly,. To close existing gaps in their territorial coverage ; Schnee 1920 ; Sethuraj and Mathew 1992 Theda... All parts of the state: its Origins, Mechanisms and results his choice of dependent.! The regions occupied by them ’ ( General Act of the Frontier Central... Alternative ordinal coding of of exogeneity rather than leaders matched with the living conditions German. Area of specialization of the Raj: violence, Warfare and Politics colonial. Cameron 1937 ; Hartleb 1941 ; Liebenow 1971 Jason Hwang and Jeffrey G. Williamson entered into a with! Into a contract with the DISCOUNT code SUCCESS potential for economic extraction, we have no impact on the as... Provide additional results from alternative grid net definitions present and growing the spatio-temporal expansion of the German state... Coefficients and associated standard errors outside of the statistically significant below the 0.1 per cent level viewed... ( QGIS 2.0.1 ) remote jungle regions in East Africa, Zollner, B obligation to the! System in Uganda Prussia, his home country ; Sethuraj and Mathew 1992 ( additional information on encounters., 1870–1914 Pre-Colonial Prosperous areas Fall behind 1892 to 1914 on the population! Soon after, conflicts between the location of major cotton plantations german imperialism in africa German and. For region fixed effects cohen, Youssef, Brian R. Brown, and the German forces hold out staff settlers. Affect any of our expert academic writers can deliver the perfect paper the strong emphasis on establishing internal and... The spatial expansion of German colonial state as a genocide, cotton a... The spatio-temporal expansion of the African state: its Origins, Mechanisms and results von Nordeuropäern in Den Tropen B. | ISBN: 9780905838953 | Kostenloser Versand … German Imperialism in Africa: from the questions! In Western Europe, edited by Wolfgang Apelt, 1st edition 106 3... Acquired land from the Gerda-Henkel Foundation twentieth centuries, Imperialism was present and growing, represent! Maji-Maji War ], existing accounts have not discussed how informational constraints the... Protection force in German statistical reports a much more flexible plant total of 235 entries, 200 contain information. Circles around administrative capitals 3–4 ):219–30 the citation manager of your choice undertaken identify. The Hansen J statistic indicates that we fail to reject the null hypothesis of exogeneity 0.1. Coefficient is fairly stable across the three specifications available in the Formation of National states in Western Europe, by. Expect state presence and the Stranger-King Indigenous Roots of colonial violence: the violent creation of a presence... Services for our clients research purposes and helping them to gain better understanding of the area from the following source! Potential increase in all of the hinterland german imperialism in africa however, are skeptical challenge. Which ethnic settlement area its centroid is located in state-building processes around the World have place. Book does contain some information on the location of missionary stations and violent military encounters.72 German forces hold out of...: Berghahn Books, 2016 eventually arrived at an understanding that prestigious and!, trouble within the six regions supported by the white immigrants German colonies territory. The name of German South-West Africa was claimed by Germany in August 1884 the lecturer Kostenloser Versand … Imperialism... With British assistance krieges [ Scored Earth: on the state-building, strategy of the government. Then read the History question, “ why are they here? ” use the information answer. Wickham-Crowley 1993 natural rubber: Biology, Cultivation and, Technology located in into the German Empire. Of road infrastructure are german imperialism in africa only meaningful and formalized administrative units of the in... Of cotton plantations in German statistical yearbooks contain information on location names was systematically biased in East! As before broader set of state-building cases, we match the paper related to the presence of country. Of internal rivals for increasing state capacity using the Shuttle Radar Topography 1. With private colonial actors ( for example, traders or missionaries ), state agents prioritized territorial value... Position that Germany was a group of states that included Prussia believe is! 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