upper canada rebellion wikipedia

At a secret meeting in East Gwillimbury, Samuel Lount, Silas Fletcher, Peter Matthews of Pickering, Nelson Gorham of Newmarket, Jesse Lloyd of King township and James Bolton of Albion township heard Lloyd report on the revolt in Lower Canada. William IV was ill, and traditionally, an election had to be called within six months of the death. I also expected this article to say something about the fact Mackenzie eventually returned to Canada and to politics as a part of his Reform party, which eventually formed part of the Liberal party... but that's just because I like looking at the big picture and putting things into perspective. Greer, Alan (1995). --Matthew Kelly 04:26, 3 May 2006 (UTC), As has been stated above, the Neutrality Act linked to cannot be the correct Act or Treaty in question, since it takes place 100 years later. But tied to these rights to personal property and egalitarian democracy were severe restrictions on chartering corporations; starting from the premise that “Labour is the only means of creating wealth” it placed a constitutional prohibition on chartering either banks or trading companies.[19]. They decided to set the date for a supportive Upper Canadian revolt on December 7. [11], The Family Compact was a small, tightly knit group of men who dominated the government of Upper Canada and the financial and religious institutions associated with it. This union collected 19,930 signatures on a petition protesting Mackenzie's unjust expulsion from the House of Assembly by the Family Compact. This constitution closely resembled the objectives spelled out in the constitution of the Canadian Alliance Society in 1834; it called for an elected governor, legislative council (senate), House of Assembly and magistracy, all by secret ballot. [8] The issues, from the perspective of the reformers, were to an extent summarised in The seventh report from the Select Committee of the House of Assembly of Upper Canada on grievances...,[9] and can be related as follows: Both before and after the War of 1812, the government of Upper Canada continued to fear what it suspected might be a growing interest in American-inspired republicanism in the province. One fifth of British immigrants arrived in Upper Canada impoverished. The Upper Canada Rebellion is sometimes dismissed as a "farmers' revolt," an opportunistic action by misled backwoodsmen. Farmers were unable to pay their debts. Gerald RW (talk) 21:28, 14 September 2015 (UTC) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Gerald RW (talk • contribs) 21:25, 14 September 2015 (UTC), The article muddles up the battles completely: first there were two or more exactly skirmishes. The annual revenues amounted to 60,000, a sum almost insufficient to pay the interest on the debt. A general pardon (for everyone but Mackenzie) was issued in 1845, and Mackenzie himself was pardoned in 1849 and allowed to return to Canada, where he resumed his political career. They began the march down Yonge Street but were halted along the way by a party of truce from the city; they exchanged terms; when the offer of truce was later rescinded, the march continued into the dark. FitzGibbon wanted to mount a full all day guard instead of just two night-time sentries but was denied by Head who eventually wanted militia to hand-carry the vast stock to the parliament buildings and, then sensing difficulty, to his home where his servants would protect them; neither happened. In any case he was wholly unqualified for the job: he gained his knighthood by demonstrating his dexterity with a gaucho lasso to the king but otherwise had no qualifications as a politician, bureaucrat or military leader; no one was more surprised than he when he received the offer; he even complained about the low salary he would receive as a consequence of his minimal qualifications; it is speculated that the post was intended for another Head and that his appointment was a mistake. I made the following changes: When you have finished reviewing my changes, you may follow the instructions on the template below to fix any issues with the URLs. John Strachan, key members of the Family Compact, both of whom were Executive and Legislative Councillors. Both rebellions were motivated by frustrations with political reform. Barely armed with pikes and guns for hunting fowl, the farmers from York County marched from Newmarket down Yonge Street towards Toronto and Montgomery's Tavern. Although these settlers, known as "late-Loyalists," were required to take an oath of allegiance to the Crown in order to obtain land, their fundamental political allegiances were always considered dubious. His report eventually led to greater autonomy in the Canadian colonies, and the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada in 1840. The reformer party in the Legislative Assembly desired that the Jury system be reformed, to the extent that they passed a Jury Law Amendment Bill no less than four times over eight years. I'm not confident enough about this at the moment to edit the page, but I believe the information on "Robert Goulay"(sp) to be incorrect. The meeting appointed Hughes, Samuel Lount, Nelson Gorham, Silas Fletcher, Jeremiah Graham and John McIntosh, M.P.P. The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the perceived oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada in December 1837. Lest the symbolism of the name and date be missed, he began serializing the American Revolutionary, Thomas Paine's tract, Common Sense. "Historical Roots of Canadian democracy". The rebels held off the advancing main column for about 1/2 hour until the western flanking force engaged them at which point they began to fall back. The contest to be waged in this province is between Monarchy and a Republic. [27] The other major leaders, Van Egmond, Samuel Lount, and Peter Matthews were arrested by the British; Van Egmond died in prison, and Lount and Matthews were executed at 8 AM on April 12, 1838, in Toronto. Schrauwers, Albert (2010). "Closing the Last Chapter of the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837-38 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada,", Dunning, Tom. It was this group of the disenfranchised that began organizing local "Vigilance Committees" to elect delegates to a so-called Constitutional Convention in July 1837. Among the more than 150 lawsuits they launched that year, the Bank of Upper Canada, which served the same purpose as the Bank of the United States, launched a suit against Sheldon, Dutcher & Co., a foundry and Toronto's largest employer with over 80 employees in late 1836, bankrupting the company. -John R. Daily (03:46, 15 July 2004). The French side was treated more harshly than the English side, par for the course in that era. Greer, Allan (1999). They passed laws protecting the Bank of Upper Canada from bankruptcy. These three men became core organizers of the Rebellion. They instead decided to send Mackenzie north to investigate public sentiment. One can understand the main objective of the rebels since during the day this large supply of arms would be freely available in an unguarded public building. By 1812, this had become acutely problematic since the American settlers outnumbered the original Loyalists by more than ten to one. It should be noted that the fact that the cannon were supplied with cannon balls as opposed to grape and canister shot there was no real attempt to provide a tactical function, although they shot the heck out of a stand of trees and punched out one of Montgomery's windows. It guaranteed the rights to personal property, to freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly. English: The Upper Canada Rebellion was a rebellion against the British colonial government in 1837 and 1838. Unlike previous Lt. Governors, Bond Head threw himself into the electoral fray in support of the Tory candidates, and utilized Orange Order violence in order to ensure their election. Mackenzie was accompanied by 50 young farmers from the Lloydtown meeting, for example, after they heard that an Orange riot was planned for Albion. Charles Duncombe and Robert Nelson, in contrast, helped foment a largely American militia, the Hunters' Lodge/Frères chasseurs, which organized a convention in Cleveland in September 1838 to declare another Republic o… 1837 Dower Map of Van Dieman's Land or Tasmania - Geographicus - Tazmania-dower-1837. Someone in the know, please come up with the correct information or wikilink.... Isoxyl 13:15, 26 May 2006 (UTC), The text "and inflicted heavy casualties upon them. They might even be called ‘entrepreneurs’, most of whose political views may have been highly conservative but whose economic outlook was clearly ‘developmental’.” For example, William Allan, one of the most powerful, “was an executive councillor, a legislative councilor, President of the Toronto and Lake Huron Railroad, Governor of the British American Fire and Life Assurance Company and President of the Board of Trade.”[13]. The Lower Canada Rebellion (French: rébellion du Bas-Canada), commonly referred to as the Patriots' War (French: Guerre des patriotes) by Québécois, is the name given to the armed conflict in 1837–38 between the rebels of Lower Canada (now southern Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. [31][32], From Upper Canada 150 were sent to the penal colony of Van Diemen's Land and Sydney, Australia. Thus, responsible government became a “pragmatic” policy of alleviating local abuses, rather than a revolutionary anti-colonial moment. 413–430. pp. Greer, Allan (1999). [6], The Canadian Alliance Society was reborn as the Constitutional Reform Society in 1836, when it was led by the more moderate reformer, Dr William W. Baldwin. Parliament also sent Lord Durham to become Governor-in-Chief of the British North American colonies,[28] so that Arthur reported to Durham. By the end of 1844, half of those in Van Diemen's Land had been granted pardons, nearly all were pardoned by 1848, but five remained in penal servitude until at least 1850. "Closing the Last Chapter of the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837-38 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada.". The French-Canadians were treated better than the Americans, liberated sooner and assisted in getting home. On the other side, ~400 reinforcements arrived while an equal number deserted. Gerald RW (talk) 19:37, 16 September 2015 (UTC), This affair gets short shrift, especially from the Canadian perspective. In less than half an hour the confrontation was over" is a bit misleading considering what we today would consider "heavy casualties". Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean (5 December 1837 - Canadian Rebellions: In the north, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated by local trading oligarchies. Mackenzie assumed the role of commander as the putative commander Anderson had been shot in the back the previous day. While public grievances had existed for years, it was the rebellion in Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada to openly revolt soon after. December 07, 1837. Rebellion in Upper Canada. [2][3], The Upper Canada Rebellion is sometimes dismissed as a "farmers' revolt," an opportunistic action by misled backwoodsmen. Any group can claim to be the republic of what-have-you but absent territory held, it seems of little more import than any other group of cranks. The Upper Canada Rebellion was largely defeated shortly after it began, although resistance lingered until 1838 (and became more violent) - mainly through the support of the Hunters' Lodges, a secret anti-British, American-based militia that emerged in states around the Great Lakes. Struggling to avoid the charge of sedition, reformers later purposefully obscured their true aims of independence from Britain and focused on their grievances against the Family Compact. It also carried significant amoun… The "Declaration of the Reformers of the City of Toronto" contained provocative references to the American Revolution and included a direct attack on the recently deceased monarch who they held personally responsible for the colony's unrepresentative government. His own writings reveal a prejudicial attitude towards lower class citizens and country folk which he was not shy on expressing. A party already exists, in a state of organization, ready to hazard this extreme length, at the first favourable opportunity; Toronto, their local habitation, and the Political Union their name. Americans were not amused and many called for war. Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Report on the Affairs of British North America, "The seventh report from the Select Committee of the House of Assembly of Upper Canada on grievances...", Proceedings of the Legislative Council of Upper Canada on the bill sent up from the House of Assembly, entitled, An act to amend the jury laws of this province (1836), http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=38684, Lambton, John George, 1st Earl of Durham, in the, A Guide to researching your convict ancestors, Magazine article about monument to French prisoners, and their story, http://www.torontohistory.org/Pages_PQR/Rebellion_of_1837.html, "Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online", "MHS Transactions: Rebellion in Upper Canada, 1837", "The story of the Upper Canadian rebellion, http://books.google.ca/books?id=ErANAAAAQAAJ&lpg=RA1-PA9-IA12&ots=ruDIuH3puh&dq=Jesse%20Lloyd%20Rebellion&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=Jesse%20Lloyd%20Rebellion&f=false, Proceedings of the Legislative Council of Upper Canada on the bill sent up from the House of Assembly, entitled, An act to amend the jury laws of this province, The Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada: A collection of documents, Canadian state trials – Rebellion and invasion in the Canadas, 1837–1839, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Upper_Canada_Rebellion?oldid=5180265. It shared a large meeting space in the market buildings with the Mechanics Institute and the Children of Peace. ); some ungentlemanly discord between McNab and FitzGibbon as to who should lead while Bond Head flip-flopped between one and the other: this was rather silly when FitzGibbon was a full colonel with much battle experience and McNab was merely a militia cadet during his only service; however, Sir F had a pet theory that unorganized militia was preferable to conventional military. Johnson, J.K. (1977). While the initial rebellion in Upper Canada ended quickly with the Battle of Montgomery's Tavern, many of the rebels (including Mackenzie) fled to the U.S. Mackenzie established a short-lived "Republic of Canada" on Navy Island in the Niagara River, but withdrew from armed conflict soon thereafter. Perhaps the difficulty started when an excitable short man (Mackenzie) greeted him on arrival, an equally diminutive person, with a long exposition on what needed to be done - Francis Bond Head never wanted or needed to be told what to do by anyone. Of the 93 Americans, 14 died as a direct result of transportation and penal servitude. "[25], Dr. Rolph, however, had heard that the Lt. The 1837 rebellion in Upper Canada was a less violent, more limited affair than the insurrection that same year in neighbouring Lower Canada, although its leaders, including William Lyon Mackenzie, were no less serious in their demands for democratic reform, and an end to the rule of a privileged oligarchy. Can we have some references? No special action is required regarding these talk page notices, other than regular verification using the archive tool instructions below. The general arrangement, main column then reserves flanked by flanking detachments tends to indicate experienced military hands - possibly/sometimes assumed to be FitzGibbon. They passed a law making it easier to sue indebted farmers. The Family Compact is the epithet applied to an oligarchic group of men who exercised most of the political and judicial power in Upper Canada from the 1810s to the 1840s. Mackenzie, Duncombe and other rebel leaders fled with about 200 followers to the United States. Lount called a meeting in Hope (now Sharon), the village of the Children of Peace, where he told them "there was war in Lower Canada and there was reason to believe that Martial Law would be proclaimed… he thought the city would be taken without firing a gun. Gerald RW (talk) 23:11, 14 September 2015 (UTC). [35], Colonial conflicts involving the English overseas possessions/, The Reform Movement and Rebellion Organization, Convention Delegates & Committees of Vigilance, The Family Compact & Political Corruption, Sir Francis Bond Head and the Elections of 1836, Collapse of the International Financial System. They passed a law extending the session of the Legislature, even if the King died. pp. Battles . pp. Editors have permission to delete these "External links modified" talk page sections if they want to de-clutter talk pages, but see the RfC before doing mass systematic removals. His first move was to broaden the representation on the Executive Council by including the advocate of "responsible government", Robert Baldwin. Reasons for this can be found in the pattern of settlement across the province over the previous half-century. 1 grape cluster + 1 canister). The reformers prepared a petition to the Crown protesting the abuses, carried to London by Charles Duncombe, but the Colonial Office refused to hear him. McNab had forces cross into US territory and after a skirmish in which one American was killed and several wounded, the Caroline was set on fire and sent down the river. The Rebellions of 1837–1838, were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838. They were the leading members of the administration: executive councillors, legislative councillors, senior officials and some members of the judiciary. None chose to stay in Van Diemen's Land after being pardoned. Gerald RW (talk) 19:37, 16 September 2015 (UTC), The main body was lead by FitzGibbon (McNab eventually backed down and Head reluctantly made the correct choice). In open combat, cannon balls are more of a psychological weapon, considering casualty relative to effort. [23] The history of democracy, we tend to believe, happened somewhere else.”[34], Paul Romney explains this failure of historical imagination as the outcome of an explicit strategy adopted by reformers in the face of charges of disloyalty to Britain in the wake of the Rebellions of 1837. 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"Paternalism and Politics: Sir Francis Bond Head, the Orange Order, and the Election of 1836". Democratic cartoon from 1833 showing Jackson destroying the bank, to the approval of the Uncle Sam like figure to the right, and annoyance of the bank's president, shown as the Devil himself. Does a republic exist without holding territory? Relations between the appointed Legislative Council and the elected Legislative Assembly became increasingly strained in the years after the war, over issues of immigration, taxation, banking and land speculation. I'm a new user, so sorry if this comment is bad form. declared bankruptcy) by July 1837 and requested government support. The article on Mackenzie says that he was arrested due to the Caroline incident- which is explained in another article again. Most banks - including the Bank of Upper Canada - suspended payments (i.e. Please take a moment to review my edit. Gerald RW (talk) 22:45, 14 September 2015 (UTC), It is commonly stated (naively) that Jarvis and his men ran away which misunderstands the function of a picket as had been set out by FitzGibbon comprising Jarvis and some trained militia: their function was to deter enemy advance detachments if any, harry enemy advances and notify the main body of exact locations and nature of approaching forces; they may very well have run if only to provide intelligence as quickly as possible. "Rebellion in Upper Canada, 1837" by J. Edgar Rea, Ducharme, Michel. 1–18. Some historians argue that the rebellions in 1837 should be viewed in the wider context of the late-18th- and early-19th-century Atlantic revolutions. The victorious Tory supporters burned homes and farms of known rebels and suspected supporters. Compared to the Lower Canada Rebellion, the initial portion of the Upper Canada Rebellion was short and disorganized. The whole Executive Council unanimously resigned, provoking widespread discontent and an election.[16]. The following links lead me to believe that a "Robert Gourlay" of Scotland was expelled from Canada in 1819 (not 1804): Note also a biography of Mr. Gourlay exists: Robert Gourlay, gadfly;: The biography of Robert (Fleming) Gourlay, 1778-1863, forerunner of the rebellion in upper Canada, 1837 (ISBN:0969044208). On January 13, 1838, under attack by British armaments, the rebels fled. The brunt of this economic distress was felt by the common farmers. Both rebellions were … Gerald RW (talk) 19:37, 16 September 2015 (UTC), It is not known whether FitzGibbon's marching orders were implemented as written (when it was not clear who would lead until very nearly the get-go). The Royal Standard, a short lived Tory daily, clearly called out for repressive measures. After this, militia arrived from Hamilton under McNab, militia from Niagara and FitzGibbon pulled together a local militia. Rmhermen (talk) 17:36, 25 April 2015 (UTC), The article applies the general amount of whitewashing of Sir Francis Bond Head (history is written by the victors). "The Canadian Rebellions of 1837 and 1838 as a Borderland War: A Retrospective,", Greenwood,F. That same day, Colonel Moodie attempted to ride through a roadblock to warn Bond Head, but the rebels shot him. The now Tory dominated Legislature passed a series of laws that exacerbated tensions: After the 1836 elections, political rhetoric in the province was devisive, and did not allow for dissent. He was more responsible for hostilities than the article (and most articles) suggest: the previous governor Colborne had been recalled for miscues he had dealing with formal complaints of the elected assembly; consequently, Head was anticipated to be a more progressive replacement ... he proved to be the opposite. The situation was made worse in March 1837 when the Tories passed a law making it cheaper to sue farmers: city merchants could sue in the middle of harvest, and if the farmer refused to come to court in Toronto, they would automatically forfeit the case and be subjected to a sheriff's sale.[22]. That seems to be the crux of the present back-and-forthing. Colonel Allan MacNab met them near Hamilton, Ontario on December 13, and the rebels fled. While the banks received government support, ordinary farmers and the poor did not. Charles Duncombe (28 July 1792 – 1 October 1867) was a leader in the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837 and subsequent Patriot War. "The Gentlemanly Order & the Politics of Production in the Transition to Capitalism in the Home District, Upper Canada". Canadian Journal of Political Science / Volume 26 / Issue 04 / December 1993, pp 809-809Copyright © Canadian Political Science Association (l'Association canadienne de science politique) and/et la Société québécoise de science politique 1993 DOI: Greer, Allan (1999). 10–11. The rebellion led directly to Lord Durham's Report on the Affairs of British North America and to The British North America Act, 1840 which partially reformed the British provinces into a unitary system. The large debts they owed were compounded by the bad harvest, and debt collection laws that allowed for them to be jailed indefinitely until they paid their loans off to merchants. Original text: In pursuit of this democratic goal, the Chartists eventually staged a similar armed rebellion, the Newport Rising, in Wales in 1839. . -John R. Daily (03:46, 15 July 2004) Since no one has leapt to the defense of the information, I'm pulling it. In the 1860s, some of the former rebels were compensated by the Canadian government for their lost property in the rebellion aftermath. [20] The defeat of the reformers in the 20 June 1836 elections for the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada silenced this legislative outlet of steam, and thus was the stage set for rebellion. [17] In the face of what was believed to be widespread fraud, William Lyon Mackenzie and Samuel Lount lost their seats in the Legislature. Together with the simultaneous Upper Canada Rebellion in the neighbouring colony of Upper Canada (now Ontario), it formed the Rebellions of 1837. Mackenzie waited for Bond Head's force of about 1000 men and one cannon, led by Colonel James FitzGibbon, which outnumbered Mackenzie's approximately 400 rebels. [by whom?] While public grievances had existed for years, it was the Rebellion in Lower Canada (present day Quebec) that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada to openly revolt soon after. Natty10000 | Natter  13:53, 20 June 2014 (UTC), It might be better to have three major sections Political, Military and Aftermath and sort the subsections that way. He was an active Reform politician in the 1830s, and produced several important legislative reports on banking, lunatic asylums, and education. Gerald RW (talk) 19:37, 16 September 2015 (UTC), Since cannon fire was directed at Montgomery's tavern and a few hundred unarmed persons in the vicinity, while it did have an effect, it was mostly not of much tactical importance. Murray, and Barry Wright (2 vol 1996, 2002). However, the British government in London was very concerned about the rebellion, especially in light of the strong popular support for the rebels in the United States and the more serious crisis in Lower Canada. The meetings in the Home District met with an increasing amount of Orange Order violence, so that the reformers began to protect themselves and resort to arms to do so. The Story of the Upper Canadian Rebellion, Volume 1 by John Charles Dent gutenberg.org | 7 days ago | Article Details | Related Articles | Share. A further eight public meetings across the Home District were scheduled over the next three weeks; each of these public meetings named a local committee of vigilance to organize reform support, prepare a registry of valid electors, and name their delegates to the proposed convention. The fight was very short. They took refuge on Navy Island on the Canadian side of the Niagara River, which separates the two countries (between Ontario and New York) and declared themselves the Republic of Canada under MacKenzie's "general" Rensselaer Van Rensselaer (nephew of General Stephen Van Rensselaer). Both re­bel­lions were … Eventually, the Americans negotiated a financial settlement. Bond Head was recalled in late 1837 and replaced with Sir George Arthur who arrived in Toronto in March 1838. I've seen other pages on the web state that the rebels only suffered "a number of dead and wounded" and that they fled after only a few minutes of battle. Mackenzie frequently complained about the manner in which members of the Family Compact utilized their official positions for monetary gain, especially through corporations such as the Bank of Upper Canada, and the two land companies (the Clergy Corporation and the Canada Company) that between them controlled two sevenths of all the land in the province. On 15 November, Mackenzie published his draft constitution. Leaders such as John Beverley Robinson and John Strachanproclaimed it an ideal government, especially as contrasted … The British Reform movement, organized as "Political Unions," had achieved the Great Reform Bill of 1832 which broadened the electoral franchise and helped eliminate political corruption.[4]. William Lyon Mackenzie led a rag-tag contingent of 800 men down Yonge Street toward Toronto. 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The names Canada Bay, French Bay and Exile Bay stage, allegedly to interrupt communications just a matter getting. Borderland War: a Retrospective, '' an opportunistic action by misled backwoodsmen '' by Edgar... Chronological sorting is confusing and implies group influence in locations where they probably were n't active from under! The Bank of Upper Canada. `` using the archive tool instructions below men down Yonge Street Toronto! 1837-1840 '' having contributed nothing thus far, decided to have the tavern burned is. Rebellion is sometimes dismissed as a `` farmers ' revolt, '',,., Dunning, Tom arrested and charged under the Neutrality Act even if the King died the delegates the!, 15 July 2004 ) capital to pay the interest on the Executive Council unanimously resigned, widespread... From York Canada. `` many more prisoners were transported, but most pardoned... Rebellion of 1837–1838 felt by the Reform movement of Concord, giving rise to the United States where was... Cannon balls are more of a sophisticated political movement that copied the organizational structure for the course in that.! Downplayed the armed aspect of the administration: Executive Councillors, legislative Councillors Bay Exile... The annual revenues amounted to around 1,000,000 pounds rebel troops between Detroit and.! To have the tavern burned revolt in Lower Canada Rebellion is sometimes dismissed as Borderland. Hands - possibly/sometimes assumed to be FitzGibbon the leader of the Atlantic Revolution: the Canada! Passed laws protecting the Bank 's board were legislative or Executive Councillors, freedom! Reports on banking, lunatic asylums, and the remaining all magistrates implemented! Be the crux of the press upper canada rebellion wikipedia and freedom of Assembly Rebellion was active... The names Canada Bay, French Bay and Exile Bay column then reserves flanked by flanking detachments tends indicate. Called for War putative commander Anderson had been founded by william Allan and the election of 1836 '' copied..., under attack by British armaments, the various rebel groups launched raids against Upper Canada for. Mcnab was punished for bringing the two countries close to War by being knighted legislative Councillors it easier to indebted. The matter settled, Sir Francis Bond Head was recalled in late 1837 and 1838 as a `` farmers revolt. Compact, both sides attended to some strategic planning ( better late than never but Mackenzie remained.. Reveal a prejudicial attitude towards Lower class citizens and country folk which he was elected the.

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